Hamartomas
– normal tissue elements in abnormal proportions or configurations e.g. Naevi, Haemagiomas, Lymphangiomas.

Phakomatoses
– Disseminated Hamartomas e.g. Tuberous Sclerosis, Sturge Weber Syndrome and Neuro fibromatosis.

Choristomas
– Normal tissue elements in abnormal sites e.g. Dermoids.

Colobomata
– Areas of absent tissue occurring where foetal clefts fail to close e.g. Iris, Chorioid, Optic Disc & eyelid (Goldenhar or Treacher Collins).

Other abnormalities of Ocular Development may cause a combination of anatomical and physiological disruptions.